Based on this, he developed the theory that people’s job satisfaction depends on two kinds of factors. Factors for satisfaction (motivators / satisfiers) and factors for dissatisfaction (hygiene factors / dissatisfiers).
Performance, recognition, job status, responsibility and opportunities for growth all fall under motivators/ satisfiers.
Hygiene factors/dissatisfiers are about salary, secondary working conditions, the relationship with colleagues, physical work place and the relationship between supervisor and employee.
In his theory, Herzberg claims these factors function on the same plane. In other words, satisfaction and dissatisfaction aren’t polar opposites. Taking away an employee’s dissatisfaction – for example by offering a higher salary – doesn’t necessarily mean the employee will then be satisfied. The employee is just no longer dissatisfied.
4 different combinations can exist at work:
1: High hygiene and high motivation
This is the ideal situation. Employees are very motivated and barely have any complaints.
2: High hygiene and low motivation
Employees have few complaints, but they’re not really motivated, they see their work simply as a pay check.
3: Low hygiene and high motivation
Employees are motivated, their job is challenging, but they have complaints about salary or work conditions.
4: Low hygiene and low motivation
This is the worst possible situation, employees are not motivated and have a lot of complaints.
The Frederick Herzberg Two Factor Theory of Motivation explains the motivation and performance of employees using hygiene factors and motivation factors.
Plural leadership Is a “collective phenomenon that is distributed or shared among different people, potentially fluid, and constructed in interaction”
Autocratic leadership, also known as authoritarian leadership, is a leadership style characterized by individual control over all decisions and little input from group members. Autocratic leaders typically make choices based on their ideas and judgments and rarely accept advice from followers.
Source: robert greenleaf – Google Search
Affinity diagram PMP
Featured snippet from the webAn affinity diagram is a diagram constructed out of a large set of ideas or opinions by grouping together similar or related ideas into logical groups. It is a project management technique that is very effective during brainstorming sessions in order to organize ideas.Jul 29, 2009
Parkinson’s Law states that work expands to fill the time allotted for its completion. … We naturally pace ourselves to finish a project in the nick of time. The same task can take one hour or one week depending on how much time we give ourselves to complete it.
Functional, Projectized and Matrix Organizations
- Functional Organization: Functional organizations are organized around the functions the organization need to be performed.
- Functions include: Human Resources, Information Technology, Sales, Marketing, Administration, etc.
- This is the traditional structure of organizations
- The “Project Management” role will be performed by a team member of a functional area under the management of a functional manager
- Resources are controlled and authorized by functional managers
- The “Project Management” role would act more like a “Project Co-ordinator” or “Project Expediter” who do not usually carry the title of “Project Manager”
- Project Management is considered a part-time responsibility
- Authority of the “Project Manager” is very limited
- Projectized Organization: Projectized Organizations are organized around projects for maximal project management effectiveness.
- The Project Manager is given more authority and resources control
- The Project Manager is responsible to the Sponsor and/or Senior Management
- The Project Manager is usually a full-time role
- Team members are usually co-located within the same office / virtually co-located to maximize communication effectiveness
- There can be some functional units within organization, however, those units are having a supportive function only without authority over the project manager
- Matrix Organization: Matrix Organizations are organizations with structures that carries a blend of the characteristics of functional and projectized organizations.
- Matrix organizations can be classified as weak, balanced or strong based on the relative authority of the Functional Manager and Project Manager
- If the “Project Manager” is given a role of more like “Project Co-ordinator” or “Project Expediter”, then the organization is considered “Weak Matrix”
- If the “Project Manager” is given much more authority on resources and budget spending, the organization is considered “Strong Matrix”
- The differentiations between Funcational Organization vs Weak Matrix and also Projectized Organization vs Strong Matrix are not very clear cut
In order to easily differentiate between the different types of organizations, the following table is drawn to provide an overview comparison between Functional, Projectized and Matrix (Weak, Balanced, Strong) Organizations:
|Functional||Weak Matrix||Balanced Matrix||Strong Matrix||Projectized|
|Project Manager Role|
|Supportive Staff||Nil||Nil or Part-Time||Part-Time||Full-Time||Full-Time|
|Authority||Nil||Low||Low to Moderate||Moderate to High||High to Total|
|Project Resource Control|
|Resource Availability||Very Low||Low||Low to Moderate||Moderate to High||High to Total|
|Project Budget I/C||Functional Manager||Functional Manager||Mixed
(Function Manager with
|Project Manager||Project Manager|
In the PMP® Exam, Aspirants are advised to look for the descriptions on the AUTHORITY of the Project Manager in order to help understanding the type of organization structure the project is being performed in.
An S-Curve is a sigmoid function, that is a mathematical process or function that resultsin a S shaped curve also called a Sigmoid Curve. The S-Curve is used in project management as a means of representing the various expenditures of resources over the projected time of the project or as a means of charting the real-time expenditure of resources. This is important to project management in that it can be used to monitor the project as is progresses and compare it to the projected S-Curve to determine whether or the project is being completed within the time and budget limitations. These resources might be the cumulative cost of the project, the number of man hours required at any given stage in the project, the expenditure of raw materials for construction or assembly, etc.
In project management, an s-curve is a mathematical graph or illustration that properly illustrates the appropriate cumulative data for a project or task. This data can cost, or man-hours plotted against time.
The reason why it’s called an S curve is not a very technical one. It’s because of the S-shape that the graph makes. You show know that this shape of the graph totally depends on the genre of project you are working on, so many formations apart from this one, are also possible.
Basically, the s-curve in project management terms is a graph to effectively track the progress of the project you are working on. This comes in very handy, because, in today’s fast-paced business culture, ensuring that the appointed budget is being spent according to schedule to fulfill all of the needs and requirements of the project.
Why an ‘S’?
Well, the ‘S’ shape is nothing forced or developed, it’s just the shape that the graph makes during the early stages of the project when the standard growth of the project is very slow.
During the early stages, the project is starting to unravel, and the team members are just doing the research about the industry or they are just beginning to engage in the first phase of project execution.
This process can take longer at first but when the team gets the hang of it, they quickly work out the kinks and the process becomes seamless as the processes trod along.
As more and more progress is made, the growth suddenly starts to speed up. If you want to this rapid growth in the graph, it will be the middle part of the ‘s’. The point which exhibits the maximum growth is called the point of inflection. These are the most important parts of the curve because this is the place where the growth stagnates.
At this time in the process, the team members are generally working quite heavily on the project tasks and as they ramp up this process, more and more tasks surface and so do their costs.
After passing the point of inflection, the growth plateaus and forms the upper part of the s-curve. This part is called the upper asymptote. Basically, this is the mature phase of the project.
This maturity is because of the fact that most projects are finished at this point and are in the process of winding down. Generally, when the process reaches this point, only the tasks such as finishing touches and the last stage approvals are unfinished.
Types of S-curves
There is a wide variety of s-curves that can be used in the project management application. These are as follows:
- Target S-curve
- Costs versus Time S-curve
- Value and Percentage S-curves
- Baseline S-curve
- Man-Hours versus Time S-curve
- Actual S-curve
What are the common uses of the s curve in project management?
S-curves are useful for many different purposes throughout the project lifespan. Some of the most important uses of s-curves are discussed below:
1. Performance and Progress Evaluation
First and foremost, S-curves are used in evaluating the progress of the project in question and its performance. This is achieved through the use of Earned Value Management.
S-Curve graphs are traditionally generated as a part of the EVMS process and are the basic building block of the evaluation of the project’s progress and performance.
There are a lot of factors that need to be evaluated in the process of finding out the current status of the project and the future forecasts about the project. They are:
- Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), which is also known as Planned Value
- Earned Value
- Actual Cost
All of these factors need to be compared with the planned S-curve to generate results.
This comparison is very powerful, because, if you want to know if the project is overrunning the budget or some other task is behind schedule, you can take a glance at the graph and it will immediately answer your query.
2. Cash Flow Forecasts
The next use of s-curves is the development of Cash flow and forecasting the changes that the cash flow would bring. What is that? Well, Cash Flow is the timing and the movement of the cash with respect to the tasks and events happening during the project execution.
This cash flow curve is very useful for the stakeholders. The most important benefit of drawing a cash flow curve is that you can evaluate the need for cash and the actual timing when the payment is due under the obligations accepted by the company.
3. Quantity Output Comparison
Another important use of s curves is to evaluate the quantity output that your project will yield. This is used more prominently in the construction and manufacturing industries.
4. Schedule Range of Possibilities a.k.a. Banana Curves
This is probably the most important use of s-curves. As we know, most scheduling software can easily drum up s-curves from schedulers using parameters like
These software can provide us with the following types of s-curves.
- One type can be generated according to the early dates
- The second type of s-curve can be generated according to the late dates
These two types of s-curves generally overlap at the very start and end of the project. The shape they form is like a banana, hence the name, Banana Curves.
Project management is a very tricky business nowadays and there are a lot of factors that need to be monitored if you want your business to be successful. These factors need proper tools and parameters to be explored and the s-curve is just that.
It is an incredible tool at our disposal that can help us monitor our cost in relation to all of the man-hours and other factors.
So, if you want your business or project management activities successful, use s-curve to dive-in and drive all of the kinks out.
There are different types of charts used in project management. The tornado diagram is a special bar chart that is used in sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis is a modeling technique that determines which risks have the most impact on the project. As one of the tools used in sensitivity analysis, the tornado diagram is used to compare the importance (relative) of different variables.
The tornado diagram is one of the methods used to display the sensitivity analysis. It is used to compare the relative importance as well as the impact of variables with a high degree of uncertainty to those that are stable. It is also used in analyzing the risk-taking scenarios at specific risks that can have greater benefits than negative impacts.
As a special type of bar chart, it displays the comparison of the relative importance of different variables. For this particular chart, the Y-axis contains uncertain variables at their base values while the X-axis contains the correlation of the uncertainty to a studied and known output. Thus, the bar contains a horizontal bar but is ordered vertically to show the uncertainties that have decreasing correlation from the base values.
While we have covered a whole bunch of concepts related to Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), below are 4 other that might come in handy as options of some of the questions in PMP,
This is just another name for Decomposition. Deconstruction of Project is done via the WBS Creation
This is another name for the 10-day rule. WBS follows the 8/80 rule which basically means deliverables are decomposed till they require 8 to 80 hours of work (or 10 days of work)
With WBS think about how easy or difficult it could get to track the progress of the project. It could be difficult to track a project at a very high level in the WBS yet equally difficult at the lowest level too. This is where we take a point between the top most level and the Work Package level and call it the Control Account. Control Account are pre-determined points where scope, cost and schedule are integrated and compared to the earned value for performance measurement. A Control Account usually has one or more work packages
Code of Accounts
Code of Accounts is typically a numbering system that uniquely identifies each component of the WBS
Deconstruction, 8/80 Rule, Control Account and Code of Accounts